A flight simulator for general anesthesia training

Comput Biomed Res. 1987 Feb;20(1):64-75. doi: 10.1016/0010-4809(87)90019-x.


A simulator of general anesthesia is described. It consists of an integrated set of physiologic computer models and a graphics display. The model predicts many of the physiologic and pharmacodynamic changes associated with general anesthesia. It is a multiple model consisting of circulatory, respiratory, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic models and their interactions. The model can account for many pathologic states of the cardiorespiratory system plus poor renal and hepatic function. Both intravenous and inhalation agents are included. Examples of its capabilities are presented, including pharmacokinetic changes associated with thiopental administration to a hypovolemic subject, administration of oxygen in several pulmonary pathologic conditions, and a simulation of an induction using fentanyl or thiopental. The model, combined with the graphics interface, becomes a real-time simulator useful for training students and residents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia, General*
  • Anesthesiology / education*
  • Computer Graphics
  • Computer Simulation*
  • Computer-Assisted Instruction*
  • Education, Medical
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Cardiovascular