Non-destructive, spectrophotometric analysis of the thickness of the cell-multilayered periosteal sheet

Int J Implant Dent. 2022 May 2;8(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s40729-022-00419-1.


Background: Autologous tissue-engineered periosteal sheets, which have been clinically applied for periodontal regeneration, sinus lift, and alveolar ridge augmentation, are enriched with osteoblast precursor cells and the abundant deposition of collagen type I in the extracellular spaces. Their quality is inspected prior to clinical use; however, most criteria cannot be evaluated without sacrificing samples. To reduce such losses, we developed a non-destructive optical method that can quantitatively evaluate the thickness of the periosteal sheet.

Methods: Dispersed periosteal cells were inoculated into small pieces of collagen sponge (Terudermis®) and plated into 60-mm dishes for further explant culture using a conventional medium and a stem-cell culture medium. The thickness of periosteal sheets was evaluated using inverted microscopic, histological, labeling (CellVue®)-based imaging and spectrophotometric (Spectro-1®) methods.

Results: The three-dimensional growth of periosteal sheets did not necessarily correlate with two-dimensional growth. The periosteal sheet prepared with the stem-cell medium formed cell multilayers, a phenomenon that could be observed qualitatively by inverted microscopy. The spectrophotometric analysis enabled the quantitative evaluation of the thickness of the cell multilayer without sacrificing the samples processed for scheduled cell therapy.

Conclusions: The growth of periosteal sheets is influenced by several major factors, including the basic quality of the individual original periosteal tissue segments, the technical expertise of doctors and operators involved in tissue harvesting and processing, and culture conditions. This newly developed spectrophotometric analysis can quantify the thickness of cell-multilayered periosteal sheets for quality assurance in a non-destructive manner, thereby contributing to better bone augmentation prior to implant therapy.

Keywords: Multilayers; Periosteal cell sheet; Quality assurance; Spectrophotometric analysis; Thickness.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Collagen
  • Culture Media
  • Periosteum*
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Tissue Engineering*


  • Culture Media
  • Collagen