Linear mixed model analysis to evaluate correlations between remdesivir adverse effects with age and gender of patients with mild Covid-19 pneumonia

J Med Virol. 2022 Aug;94(8):3783-3790. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27800. Epub 2022 May 12.


We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in clinical indexes of corona disease 2019 (Covid-19) patients with mild pulmonary infection during 5 days of remdesivir therapy and determine the effect of age and gender on remdesivir adverse effects (AE). Patients' clinical data including inflammatory markers, liver and renal function tests, and heart rate (HR) were extracted from medical records. Linear mixed model (LMM) was used to analyze longitudinal changes in patients' clinical indexes. Gender and age were inserted in LMM as covariates to find their correlation with AE and clinical indexes. Of 84 patients, 35 patients met our criteria for the study. There were significant increases in mean levels of white blood cell (WBC; p = 0.005), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; p = 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; p = 0.001), and creatinine (p = 0.006), whereas mean levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.005), C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.001), and potassium (p = 0.003) decreased significantly. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.001) and HR (p = 0.001) showed a notable decline over the course of treatment. LMM analysis showed that mean changes in WBC (β = 0.94, p = 0.029), creatinine (β = 0.12, p = 0.020), and HR (β = 6.47, p = 0.008) were greater in males than in females. Also, age of patients had a significant effect on the mean changes of WBC (β = -0.02, p = 0.023), sodium (β = -0.06, p = 0.010), BUN (β = 0.23, p = 0.001), and HR (β = -0.29, p = 0.001). Despite no renal and liver dysfunction, Covid-19 patients with mild pulmonary infection may develop some remdesivir AE and attributed side effects might be affected by gender and age of patients.

Keywords: Covid-19; adverse effects; linear mixed model; remdesivir.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Monophosphate / adverse effects
  • Adenosine Monophosphate / analogs & derivatives
  • Alanine / adverse effects
  • Alanine / analogs & derivatives
  • COVID-19 Drug Treatment*
  • Creatinine
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male


  • remdesivir
  • Adenosine Monophosphate
  • Creatinine
  • Alanine