Outcomes of simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting: A single centre experience

Vascular. 2023 Oct;31(5):914-921. doi: 10.1177/17085381221098281. Epub 2022 May 1.


Objective: Stroke following a coronary artery bypass surgery is a well-known complication often predisposed by carotid artery disease. Perioperative risk of stroke after on-pump cardiac surgery can overall affect 2% of patients. Patients with 80-99% unilateral carotid artery stenosis carry a 4% risk of stroke. Significant carotid artery stenosis is present in 3-10% of patients who are candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Those patients might be considered for either simultaneous or staged carotid endarterectomy and CABG to reduce the risk of stroke and death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and death and assess complications occurring during the early postoperative period after simultaneous CABG/CAE procedure.

Methods: A single centre retrospective analysis of 134 patients from 2015 to 2019 who underwent simultaneous CABG/CEA was performed. At the same period, a total of 2827 CABG were performed, of which 4.7% were simultaneous interventions. We excluded staged CEA/CABG procedures, off-pump CABG and urgent CABG patients. All patients included in the study met the criteria for elective CABG for triple-vessel or left main trunk symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) with asymptomatic >70% carotid stenosis or symptomatic ipsilateral >50% carotid stenosis regardless of the degree of contralateral carotid artery stenosis. Patient demographics, comorbidities and operative details were reviewed. The primary endpoint was to assess the intraoperative and 30-day risk of stroke and death after simultaneous CEA/CABG procedure.

Results: Simultaneous CEA/CABG is effective procedure that can be performed in high-risk symptomatic patients with acceptable results. Predictors of postoperative stroke were smoking (P = 0.011), history of MI (P = 0.046), history of CABG (P = 0.013), and history of stroke/TIA (P = 0.005). Significant risk factors for adverse major postoperative complications after simultaneous CEA/CABG procedure were cardiac arrhythmia (AF or AFL) (P = 0.045), previous MI (P < 0.001), and smoking (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Synchronous CEA/CABG procedure can be performed with acceptable results in patients having a high risk of stroke, septuagenarians and older.

Keywords: Cerebrovascular event; carotid artery disease; carotid endarterectomy; coronary artery bypass grafting; simultaneous surgery.

MeSH terms

  • Carotid Stenosis* / complications
  • Carotid Stenosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Carotid Stenosis* / surgery
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / adverse effects
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / complications
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / surgery
  • Endarterectomy, Carotid* / adverse effects
  • Endarterectomy, Carotid* / methods
  • Humans
  • Myocardial Infarction* / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke* / etiology
  • Treatment Outcome