Correlates of 90-Day Mortality Among People Who Do and Do Not Inject Drugs With Infective Endocarditis in Seattle, Washington

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022 Mar 29;9(5):ofac150. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofac150. eCollection 2022 May.


Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains highly morbid, but few studies have evaluated factors associated with IE mortality. We examined correlates of 90-day mortality among people who inject drugs (PWID) and people who do not inject drugs (non-PWID).

Methods: We queried the electronic medical record for cases of IE among adults ≥18 years of age at 2 academic medical centers in Seattle, Washington, from 1 January 2014 to 31 July 2019. Cases were reviewed to confirm a diagnosis of IE and drug use status. Deaths were confirmed through the Washington State death index. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize IE in PWID and non-PWID. Kaplan-Meier log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess correlates of 90-day mortality.

Results: We identified 507 patients with IE, 213 (42%) of whom were PWID. Sixteen percent of patients died within 90 days of admission, including 14% of PWID and 17% of non-PWID (P = .50). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, injection drug use was associated with a higher mortality within the first 14 days of admission (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.16-4.65], P = .02); however, there was no association between injection drug use and mortality between 15 and 90 days of admission (aHR, 0.63 [95% CI, .31-1.30], P = .21).

Conclusions: Overall 90-day mortality did not differ between PWID and non-PWID with IE, although PWID experienced a higher risk of death within 14 days of admission. These findings suggest that early IE diagnosis and treatment among PWID is critical to improving outcomes.

Keywords: PWID; infective endocarditis; mortality; people who inject drugs.