Composite photocatalysts based on Cd1- x Zn x S and TiO2 for hydrogen production under visible light: effect of platinum co-catalyst location

RSC Adv. 2021 Nov 25;11(60):37966-37980. doi: 10.1039/d1ra06845h. eCollection 2021 Nov 23.


Ternary composite photocatalysts based on titania and solid solutions of CdS and ZnS were prepared and studied by a set of physicochemical methods including XRD, XPS, HRTEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. Two synthetic techniques of platinization of Cd1-x Zn x S/TiO2 were compared. In the first case, platinum was deposited on the surface of synthesized Cd1-x Zn x S (x = 0.2-0.3)/TiO2 P25; in the second one, Cd1-x Zn x S (x = 0.2-0.3) was deposited on the surface of Pt/TiO2 P25. The photocatalytic properties of the obtained samples were compared in the hydrogen evolution from TEOA aqueous solution under visible light (λ = 425 nm). The Cd1-x Zn x S (10-50 wt%; x = 0.2-0.3)/Pt (1 wt%)/TiO2 photocatalysts demonstrated much higher photocatalytic activity than the Pt (1 wt%)/Cd1-x Zn x S (10-50 wt%; x = 0.2-0.3)/TiO2 ones. It turned out that the arrangement of platinum nanoparticles precisely on the titanium dioxide surface in a composite photocatalyst makes it possible to achieve efficient charge separation according to the type II heterojunctions and, accordingly, a high rate of hydrogen formation. The highest photocatalytic activity was demonstrated by 20% Cd0.8Zn0.2S/1% Pt/TiO2 in the amount of 26 mmol g-1 h-1 (apparent quantum efficiency was 7.7%) that exceeds recently published values for this class of photocatalysts.