Associations between fruit consumption and home blood pressure in a randomly selected sample of the general Swedish population

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2022 Jun;24(6):723-730. doi: 10.1111/jch.14491. Epub 2022 May 2.


Frequent fruit consumption has been associated with lower office blood pressure. Less is known about associations between fruit consumption and home blood pressure. Our aim was to study the correlation between consumption of specific fruits and home blood pressure in a large randomly selected study population. The main outcome was systolic home blood pressure. Home blood pressure measurements were performed with calibrated oscillometric meters during seven consecutive days. Means for all available measurements were used. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used for estimating frequency of fruit consumption. The specified fruits were bananas, apples/pears and oranges/citrus fruit. Complete case analysis regarding fruit consumption, office- and home blood pressure measurements and other relevant variables was performed in 2283 study participants out of 2603 available. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed. There were statistically significant associations between consumption of all fruit types and lower systolic home blood pressure unadjusted (p for trend; bananas, apples/pears and oranges/citrus fruit p < .001). The numerical differences between most and least frequent consumption of fruit were for bananas -2.7 mm Hg, apples/pears -3.9 mm Hg and for oranges/citrus fruit -3.4 mm Hg. When adjusted for covariates, both consumption of apples/pears and oranges/citrus fruit had an independent statistically significant association with lower blood pressure (p = .048 resp. p = .009). Future controlled interventional studies are needed to evaluate the effect of specific fruit on home blood pressure.

Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure/home blood pressure monitor; diet; epidemiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure
  • Diet
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Malus*
  • Sweden
  • Vegetables