Racial and ethnic differences in clonal hematopoiesis, tumor markers, and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma

Blood Adv. 2022 Jun 28;6(12):3767-3778. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006652.


Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence, mortality, and survival vary by race and ethnicity, but the causes of differences remain unclear. We investigated demographic, clinical, and molecular features of diverse MM patients to elucidate mechanisms driving clinical disparities. This study included 495 MM patients (self-reported Hispanic, n = 45; non-Hispanic Black, n = 52; non-Hispanic White, n = 398). Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black individuals had an earlier age of onset than non-Hispanic White individuals (53 and 57 vs 63 years, respectively, P < .001). There were no differences in treatment by race and ethnicity groups, but non-Hispanic Black patients had a longer time to hematopoietic cell transplant than non-Hispanic White patients (376 days vs 248 days; P = .01). Overall survival (OS) was improved for non-Hispanic Black compared with non-Hispanic White patients (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.81; P = .005), although this association was attenuated after adjusting for clinical features (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.37-1.03; P = .06). Tumor mutations in IRF4 were most common in Hispanic patients, and mutations in SP140, AUTS2, and SETD2 were most common in non-Hispanic Black patients. Differences in tumor expression of BCL7A, SPEF2, and ANKRD26 by race and ethnicity were observed. Clonal hematopoiesis was detected in 12% of patients and associated with inferior OS in non-Hispanic Black patients compared with patients without clonal hematopoiesis (HR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.36-14.00). This study provides insight into differences in molecular features that may drive clinical disparities in MM patients receiving comparable treatment, with the novel inclusion of Hispanic individuals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Clonal Hematopoiesis
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Hispanic or Latino / genetics
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma* / genetics
  • Multiple Myeloma* / therapy


  • Biomarkers, Tumor