Immune cells are known to engage in pathogen defense. However, emerging research has revealed additional roles for immune cells, which are independent of their function in the immune response. Here, we underscore the ability of cells outside of the adaptive immune system to respond to recurring infections through the lens of evolution and cellular memory. With this in mind, we then discuss the bidirectional crosstalk between the immune cells and stem cells and present examples where these interactions regulate tissue repair and regeneration. We conclude by suggesting that comprehensive analyses of the immune system may enable biomedical applications in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.
Keywords: Hemocytes; Homeostasis; Innate immunity; Macrophages; Regeneration; Stem cells; Trained immunity.
© 2022. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.