Background. The revolutions in AI hold tremendous capacity to augment human achievements in surgery, but robust integration of deep learning algorithms with high-fidelity surgical simulation remains a challenge. We present a novel application of reinforcement learning (RL) for automating surgical maneuvers in a graphical simulation.Methods. In the Unity3D game engine, the Machine Learning-Agents package was integrated with the NVIDIA FleX particle simulator for developing autonomously behaving RL-trained scissors. Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) was used to reward movements and desired behavior such as movement along desired trajectory and optimized cutting maneuvers along the deformable tissue-like object. Constant and proportional reward functions were tested, and TensorFlow analytics was used to informed hyperparameter tuning and evaluate performance.Results. RL-trained scissors reliably manipulated the rendered tissue that was simulated with soft-tissue properties. A desirable trajectory of the autonomously behaving scissors was achieved along 1 axis. Proportional rewards performed better compared to constant rewards. Cumulative reward and PPO metrics did not consistently improve across RL-trained scissors in the setting for movement across 2 axes (horizontal and depth).Conclusion. Game engines hold promising potential for the design and implementation of RL-based solutions to simulated surgical subtasks. Task completion was sufficiently achieved in one-dimensional movement in simulations with and without tissue-rendering. Further work is needed to optimize network architecture and parameter tuning for increasing complexity.
Keywords: Automation; reinforcement learning; robotic surgery.