Comprehensive Review and Updates on Holistic Approach Towards Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Management with Cardiovascular Disease

Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2022 Jul;24(7):515-532. doi: 10.1007/s11883-022-01027-5. Epub 2022 May 4.


Purpose of review: The global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents an unmet need in treating these, often asymptomatic, individuals. In this review, we summarised NAFLD management and described recent developments in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) therapeutics that can shape the future of NAFLD.

Recent findings: A multi-disciplinary effort in promoting sustainable lifestyle measures is paramount, with the goal of either limiting energy surplus alone or in combination with targeting downstream pathways of inflammation and fibrosis. Several antidiabetic medications like PPAR-γ agonist and glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists have beneficial effects on the metabolic profile as well as NASH histology. Vitamin E has shown promise in specific groups of patients with the haptoglobin2 allele protein. Newer drugs have demonstrated promising results in NASH resolution and fibrosis improvement such as obeticholic acid, resmetirom, aramchol, efruxifermin, aldafermin and lanifibranor. Apart from discussing the results of late stage clinical trials and the possible challenges in managing these patients with limited approved therapies, we also discussed the specific management of comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, cardiovascular diseases) in NAFLD patients. Treatment strategy needs to target improvements in liver-related outcomes and cardiometabolic profile.

Keywords: Intervention; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Pharmacology.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Fibrosis
  • Holistic Health
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease* / complications
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease* / epidemiology
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease* / therapy


  • Hypoglycemic Agents