CTA analysis of 482 cases of coronary artery fistula: A large-scale imaging study

J Card Surg. 2022 Jul;37(7):2172-2181. doi: 10.1111/jocs.16500. Epub 2022 May 4.


Objective: The prevalence of coronary artery fistula (CAF) based on coronary angiography has been reported. However, with the popularity of coronary computerized tomography angiography (CTA), CAFs have been found more and more by chance. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of CAFs detected by coronary CTA, and to explore the differences in the size of fistulas, the number of complicated aneurysms, and fistulas among different types.

Materials and methods: From January 2016 to December 2020, 96,037 patients underwent coronary CTA in our hospital. The prevalence of CAF was retrospectively evaluated, The origin, course, and drainage site of CAF and coexisting abnormalities were analysed. The conventional treatments and follow-up DSCT images were also evaluated. Analyze the difference between the coronary-pulmonary artery fistula (CPAFs) group (380) and the coronary-cameral fistula (CCF) group (99).

Results: Among 96,037 patients, 482 (0.5%) patients (male 232 and 250 female) had CAF. The types of CAF detected. The pulmonary artery was the most common site of drainage (380/482, 78.8%). Of the 99 CCFs, coronary to the left ventricle is the most common pattern in CCF (34/482, 7.0%). Single origins are more common in CAF (n = 361, 74.9%), multiple origins are more common in CPAFs than in CCF. There were statistically significant differences in the stoma diameter (2.4 ± 1.1 mm vs. 5.4 ± 4.3 mm p < .05), aneurysm complicated (85 cases [85/380] vs. 50 cases [50/99]), the size of aneurysm (8.8 ± 5.7 mm vs. 19.1 ± 11.6 mm, p < .05), and single fistula (261 [261/380] vs. 96 [96/99], p < .05). Most of the 380 CPAFs patients received conservative treatment (350/380, 92.1%), While the 59 CCF patients (59/93, 63.4%) were treated.

Conclusions: Different from previous reports, the prevalence of CAF in coronary CTA is 0.5%, the incidence of CPAFs is the highest, and the incidence of the left ventricular fistula is higher in CCF. Compared with CPAFs, CCF fistulas were more likely to be associated with a larger diameter of draining, larger aneurysms, single fistula pattern. Coronary artery CTA is a useful and noninvasive imaging method to detect CAF, which is of great significance for the detection of small fistulas and the surgical guidance of complex CAF.

Keywords: cardiovascular research; coronary artery disease.

MeSH terms

  • Arterio-Arterial Fistula* / diagnostic imaging
  • Arterio-Arterial Fistula* / epidemiology
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / epidemiology
  • Coronary Vessel Anomalies* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Vessel Anomalies* / epidemiology
  • Coronary Vessels / diagnostic imaging
  • Female
  • Fistula* / diagnostic imaging
  • Fistula* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies