Background: Gitelman Syndrome (GS) is a hereditary tubulopathy associated with a biallelic inactivating mutations of the SLC12A3 gene encoding the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCCT). The typical clinical manifestation is a hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with significant hypomagnesemia, and low urinary calcium excretion. Hypocalciuria is widely believed to be a hallmark of GS that distinguishes it from Barter's syndrome, presenting as hypercalciuria. The pathomechanism of hypocalciuria in GS is not fully elucidated. Up to date, a clinical course of GS with normocalciuria has been reported only in men, while women have a milder course of the disease with typical hypocalciuria, which is believed as the result of sex hormone. Additionally, there is a growing evidence that calcium channels of the distal nephron could be regulated by a variety of hormones, including aldosterone (Aldo).
Case presentation: We present the case of a 28-year-old Caucasian woman with asymptomatic, chronic hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypochloremic alkalosis and normal urinary calcium excretion. A high renin levels with normal concentration of Aldo in serum have also been found. The values of blood pressure were low. Based on genetic studies, two heterozygous mutations in the trans position were confirmed: c.2186G>T (p.Gly729Val) and c.1247G>C (p.Cys416Ser) in the SLC12A3 gene, which ultimately confirmed the diagnosis of GS.
Conclusions: We report here the first case of genetically confirmed GS manifested as normocalciuria in a Caucasian woman. Thus, our result does not confirm a role of sex hormones on the level of calciuria. Based on the results of normal Aldo concentration despite high renin level in our patient, we hypothesized that Aldo may be connecting with the level of urinary calcium excretion in patients with the GS.
Keywords: A case-report; Aldosterone; Gitelman syndrome; Normocalciuria; Tubulopathy; Urinary calcium excretion.
© 2022. The Author(s).