TBX5 variant with the novel phenotype of mixed‑type total anomalous pulmonary venous return in Holt‑Oram Syndrome and variable intrafamilial heart defects

Mol Med Rep. 2022 Jun;25(6):210. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2022.12726. Epub 2022 May 6.


Variants in T‑box transcription factor 5 (TBX5) can result in a wide phenotypic spectrum, specifically in the heart and the limbs. TBX5 has been implicated in causing non‑syndromic cardiac defects and Holt‑Oram syndrome (HOS). The present study investigated the underlying molecular etiology of a family with heterogeneous heart defects. The proband had mixed‑type total anomalous pulmonary venous return (mixed‑type TAPVR), whereas her mother had an atrial septal defect. Genetic testing through trio‑based whole‑exome sequencing was used to reveal the molecular etiology. A nonsense variant was identified in TBX5 (c.577G>T; p.Gly193*) initially showing co‑segregation with a presumably non‑syndromic presentation of congenital heart disease. Subsequent genetic investigations and more complete phenotyping led to the correct diagnosis of HOS, documenting the novel association of mixed‑type TAPVR with HOS. Finally, protein modeling of the mutant TBX5 protein that harbored this pathogenic nonsense variant (p.Gly193*) revealed a substantial drop in the quantity of non‑covalent bonds. The decrease in the number of non‑covalent bonds suggested that the resultant mutant dimer was less stable compared with the wild‑type protein, consequently affecting the protein's ability to bind DNA. The present findings extended the phenotypic cardiac defects associated with HOS; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first association of mixed‑type TAPVR with TBX5. Prior to the current analysis, the molecular association of TAPVR with HOS had never been documented; hence, this is the first genetic investigation to report the association between TAPVR and HOS. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the null‑variants reported in the T‑box domain of TBX5 were associated with a wide range of cardiac and/or skeletal anomalies on both the inter‑and intrafamilial levels. In conclusion, genetic testing was highlighted as a potentially powerful approach in the prognostication of the proper diagnosis.

Keywords: T‑box transcription factor 5; congenital heart disease; holt‑oram syndrome; mixed‑type; protein modeling; total anomalous pulmonary venous return; whole‑exome sequencing.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / diagnosis
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / genetics
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / pathology
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial* / diagnosis
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Lower Extremity Deformities, Congenital
  • Phenotype
  • Scimitar Syndrome* / genetics
  • T-Box Domain Proteins* / genetics
  • Upper Extremity Deformities, Congenital


  • T-Box Domain Proteins
  • T-box transcription factor 5

Supplementary concepts

  • Holt-Oram syndrome