Several atypical forms of chikungunya fever (CHIK) have been described, including neurological, cardiac and renal involvement. These forms may be related to high morbidity and mortality rates. This scoping review based on the PubMed, Scopus, and WOS databases aims to identify and summarise all the available evidence regarding the clinical and histopathological presentations and risk factors associated with kidney injury related to CHIK, as well as the clinical impact. Thus, a total of 54 papers were selected from 1606 initial references after applying the defined inclusion criteria. Data on the association between kidney injury and CHIK are scarce, with studies only conducted in the acute phase of the disease, lacking further characterisation. Kidney injury incidence in hospitalised patients using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria varies from 21% to 45%, being higher among patients with atypical and severe manifestations. Although acute kidney injury does not seem to be related to viraemia, it may be related to higher mortality. Few studies have described the renal histopathological changes in the acute phase of CHIK, with prevalent findings of acute interstitial nephritis with mononuclear infiltrate, glomerular congestion and nephrosclerosis. Only one study assessed the kidney function of patients in the subacute and chronic phases of CHIK. Additionally, individuals with comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease, may be among those with a greater risk of presenting worse outcomes when affected by CHIK. The results described herein may contribute to better understand the relationship between the kidneys and chikungunya virus.
Keywords: acute kidney disease; chikungunya fever; chronic kidney disease.
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