The role of phagocytes of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) associated with different phenotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phagocytic capacity of blood neutrophils and monocytes and production of superoxide anion by phagocytes in patients with CF with or without chronic rhinosinusitis and with or without nasal polyps (NP). This cross-sectional study was established in 2015-2017 in a tertiary reference center to the CF treatment, Brasilia, Brazil. Sample included 30 children volunteers with CRS related to CF (n = 16) and control subjects (n = 14). Epidemiological and clinical data were compared. Collection of 15 mL of peripheral blood and nasal endoscopy to identify the presence or absence of nasal polyps (NP) were performed. Phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors and opsonin receptors was assessed. Superoxide anion production was evaluated. The control group showed a higher phagocytic index to monocytes and neutrophils than to the CF or CF+CRS with NP groups [Kruskal-Wallis p = 0.0025] when phagocytosis were evaluated by pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors (5 yeasts/cell). The phagocytic index of the CF+CRS without NP group was higher than in the CF+CRS with NP group (Kruskal-Wallis p = 0.0168). In the control group, the percentage of phagocytes involved in phagocytosis and superoxide anion production (74.0 ± 9.6%) were higher in all CF groups (p < 0,0001). The innate immune response, represented by phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production by monocytes and neutrophils was more impaired in patients with CF related or not related to CRS than in the control group. However, the phagocytic function of patients without NP showed less impairment.