Embryoids and organoids hold great promise for human biology and medicine. Herein, we discuss conceptual and technological frameworks useful for developing high-fidelity embryoids and organoids that display tissue- and organ-level phenotypes and functions, which are critically needed for decoding developmental programs and improving translational applications. Through dissecting the layers of inputs controlling mammalian embryogenesis, we review recent progress in reconstructing multiscale structural orders in embryoids and organoids. Bioengineering tools useful for multiscale, multimodal structural engineering of tissue- and organ-level cellular organization and microenvironment are also discussed to present integrative, bioengineering-directed approaches to achieve next-generation, high-fidelity embryoids and organoids.
Keywords: developmental biology; embryoid; mammalian embryogenesis; mechanobiology; organoid; stem cell engineering.
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