National Trends and Outcomes in the Use of Intravesical Botulinum Toxin and Enterocystoplasty Among Patients With Myelomeningocele

Urology. 2022 Aug:166:289-296. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2022.04.020. Epub 2022 May 4.


Objective: To compare trends in the treatment of patients with myelomeningocele receiving intravesical Botulinum (IVB) toxin and enterocystoplasty.

Methods: We identified patients with myelomeningocele in a commercial insurance database from 2008-2017 and stratified them into adult and pediatric samples. Index procedure was identified as either IVB toxin injection or enterocystoplasty. The annual rate of treatments was measured and a change in treatment rate was identified. Time to enterocysplasty was calculated using survival analysis and factors associated with clinical outcomes up to 10 years after index procedure were determined using multivariate Poisson regression.

Results: We identified 60,983 patients with myelomeningocele. Nearly twice as many pediatric patients had an enterocystoplasty (n = 317) compared to IVB (n = 138). Very few adult patients underwent enterocystoplasty (n = 25) compared to IVB (n = 116). We identified a significant increase in the annual rate of IVB use around mid-2010 among pediatric patients and around mid-2009 among adults. Twelve pediatric patients (8.6%) and 5 adults (4.3%) went on to receive an enterocystoplasty. Patients who received IVB as the index procedure experienced significantly lower rates of hospitalization days (RR 0.64; 95% CI 0.53-0.78), emergency department visits (RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.63-0.82), and an increased rate of urologic procedures (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.28-1.62).

Conclusion: The annual rate of IVB use has increased among patients with myelomeningocele. Nearly 1 in 10 pediatric patients and 1 in 20 adults go on to receive enterocystoplasty. Patients who receive IVB experience lower rates of hospitalization and emergency department visits compared to patients who receive enterocystoplasty.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anastomosis, Surgical
  • Botulinum Toxins*
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A* / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Intestines / surgery
  • Meningomyelocele* / complications
  • Meningomyelocele* / surgery
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic* / complications
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic* / drug therapy
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic* / surgery
  • Urologic Surgical Procedures


  • Botulinum Toxins
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A