Spatial-temporal variability and heath impact of particulate matter during a 2019-2020 biomass burning event in Southeast Asia

Sci Rep. 2022 May 10;12(1):7630. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-11409-z.


To understand the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) in the Southeast Asia region, the spatial-temporal concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in Malaysia (Putrajaya, Bukit Fraser and Kota Samarahan) and Thailand (Chiang Mai) were determined using the AS-LUNG V.2 Outdoor sensor. The period of measurement was over a year from 2019 to 2020. The highest concentrations of all sizes of PM in Putrajaya, Bukit Fraser and Kota Samarahan were observed in September 2019 while the highest PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations in Chiang Mai were observed between March and early April 2020 with 24 h average concentrations during haze days in ranges 83.7-216 µg m-3, 78.3-209 µg m-3 and 57.2-140 µg m-3, respectively. The average PM2.5/PM10 ratio during haze days was 0.93 ± 0.05, which was higher than the average for normal days (0.89 ± 0.13) for all sites, indicating higher PM2.5 concentrations during haze days compared to normal days. An analysis of particle deposition in the human respiratory tract showed a higher total deposition fraction value during haze days than on non-haze days. The result from this study indicated that Malaysia and Thailand are highly affected by biomass burning activity during the dry seasons and the Southwest monsoon.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants* / analysis
  • Asia, Southeastern
  • Biomass
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Humans
  • Particle Size
  • Particulate Matter* / analysis
  • Seasons


  • Air Pollutants
  • Particulate Matter