Loss of RARRES1 function Promotes Follicular Lymphomagenesis and Inhibits B cell Differentiation in Mice

Int J Biol Sci. 2022 Mar 28;18(7):2670-2682. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.69615. eCollection 2022.


Retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1) is among the most commonly methylated loci in multiple cancers. RARRES1 regulates mitochondrial and fatty acid metabolism, stem cell differentiation, and survival of immortalized cell lines in vitro. Here, we created constitutive Rarres1 knockout (Rarres1-/-) mouse models to study RARRES1 function in vivo. Rarres1-/- embryonic fibroblasts regulated tubulin glutamylation, cell metabolism, and survival, recapitulating RARRES1 function in immortalized cell lines. In two mouse strains, loss of Rarres1 led to a markedly increased dose-dependent incidence of follicular lymphoma (FL). Prior to lymphoma formation, Rarres1-/- B cells have compromised activation, maturation, differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells, and cell cycle progression. Rarres1 ablation increased B cell survival and led to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and heat shock response (HSR). Rarres1 deficiency had differential effects on cellular metabolism, with increased bioenergetic capacity in fibroblasts, and minor effects on bioenergetics and metabolism in B cells. These findings reveal that RARRES1 is a bona fide tumor suppressor in vivo and the deletion in mice promotes cell survival, and reduces B cell differentiation with B cell autonomous and non-autonomous functions.

Keywords: B cell; Follicular Lymphoma; HSR; Metabolism; RARRES1; UPR.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics
  • Cell Line
  • Genes, Tumor Suppressor*
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Membrane Proteins* / metabolism
  • Mice


  • Membrane Proteins
  • Rarres1 protein, mouse