Interest in artificial intelligence (AI) applications for lung nodules continues to grow among radiologists, particularly with the expanding eligibility criteria and clinical utilization of lung cancer screening CT. AI has been heavily investigated for detecting and characterizing lung nodules and for guiding prognostic assessment. AI tools have also been used for image postprocessing (e.g., rib suppression on radiography or vessel suppression on CT) and for noninterpretive aspects of reporting and workflow, including management of nodule follow-up. Despite growing interest in and rapid development of AI tools and FDA approval of AI tools for pulmonary nodule evaluation, integration into clinical practice has been limited. Challenges to clinical adoption have included concerns about generalizability, regulatory issues, technical hurdles in implementation, and human skepticism. Further validation of AI tools for clinical use and demonstration of benefit in terms of patient-oriented outcomes also are needed. This article provides an overview of potential applications of AI tools in the imaging evaluation of lung nodules and discusses the challenges faced by practices interested in clinical implementation of such tools.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; lung nodules.