Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis of MVK, NLRP3, TNFRSF1A, and PSTPIP1 Genes in Patients without MEFV Gene Variation and Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

Eur J Rheumatol. 2022 Apr;9(2):62-67. doi: 10.5152/eurjrheum.2022.21049.


Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate other interleukin-1b-mediated monogenic autoinflam- matory diseases (AIDs) (tumor necrosis factor receptor-1-associated periodic syndrome, hyperimmuno- globulin D syndrome, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne syndrome) by the next-generation sequencing method (NGS) in cases with clinical Familial Mediterranean Fever symptoms, and no variant detected in the MEFV gene. Methods: The cases included in this study and their parents were interviewed and filled in a survey form. The targeted genetic panel for interleukin-1b-mediated AIDs covering four genes (MVK, NLRP3,TNFRSF1A, and PSTPIP1) was studied for cases with a negative result from the MEFV gene analysis. The genetic analysis was conducted using the targeted NGS method. Results: Variants were found in 16 out of the 40 patients in the study sample. These variants were pri- orly reported in variant databases, and three of them were identified as definitely pathogenic (V377I of the MVK gene, C52Y of the TNFRSF1A gene, and I313V of the NLRP3 gene), four as a variant of uncer- tain significance (VUS) (R92Q of the TNFRSF1A, A372V of the PSTPIP1, and V198M and Q703K of the NLRP3), and one as benign polymorphism (S52N of the MVK gene). The median age of onset among variant-positive cases was 10.5 (3.5-18) years. The most common clinical findings in the variant-positive group were arthralgia, fever, and abdominal pain. While three out of 40 patients met the classification criteria before genetic analysis, only one patient was diagnosed with CAPS as a result of genetic analy- sis, and other patients were considered as nonspecific phenotype. Conclusion: The use of NGS gene panels seems beneficial in diseases with heterogeneous clinical manifestations such as systemic AIDs. Although the number of variants detected is high, clinical diag- nosis rates remain low. The genotype–phenotype relationship in these diseases is still unclear.