Background: Oguchi disease is a rare type of congenital stationary night blindness associated with an abnormal fundus appearance. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner where two types exist according to the gene affected; type 1 associated with S-antigen (SAG) gene mutations and type 2 associated with rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) gene mutations.
Purpose: The aim of this work was to describe the clinical and genetic findings of the first two reported families of Oguchi disease in Egypt and African region.
Methods: Four members of two consanguineous Egyptian families with history of night blindness since childhood underwent complete ophthalmological examination, standard automated static perimetry, fundus color photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) in light-adapted state and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of both the macula and the optic nerve head as well as central corneal thickness with repeated fundus photography following prolonged dark adaptation. Mutation screening of 7 coding exons of GRK1 gene and 15 coding exons of SAG gene as well as some flanking regions were performed using Sanger sequencing technique. The variants were tested for pathogenicity using different in silico functional analysis tools.
Results: The clinical examination and investigations confirmed Oguchi disease phenotype. One patient showed p.R193* (c.577C > T) which is a previously reported SAG gene mutation in a homozygous form. The other three patients from a different family showed (c.649-1 G > C), a novel canonical splice site SAG gene mutation in a homozygous form.
Conclusion: The identification of the novel canonical splice site SAG gene variant in three members of the same family with clinically confirmed Oguchi disease reinforces its pathogenicity. A fourth patient from another family carried a previously reported mutation in the same gene. SAG gene variants may be the underlying genetic cause for Oguchi disease in Egypt. Our findings have expanded the spectrum of Oguchi disease-associated mutations in SAG gene and may serve as a basis for genetic diagnosis for Oguchi disease.
Keywords: Africa; Egypt; Novel canonical splice site mutation; Oguchi disease; and S-antigen (SAG) gene.
© 2022. The Author(s).