Arthrospira platensis nanoparticles defeat against diabetes-induced testicular injury in rat targeting, oxidative, apoptotic, and steroidogenesis pathways

Andrologia. 2022 Sep;54(8):e14456. doi: 10.1111/and.14456. Epub 2022 May 12.


Varieties of studies have been used to investigate the health benefits of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis); however, more research is needed to examine if its nano form may be utilized to treat or prevent several chronic diseases. So, we designed this study to explore the effect and the cellular intracellular mechanisms by which Arthrospira platensis Nanoparticles (NSP) alleviates the testicular injury induced by diabetes in male Wistar rats. Eighty Wistar male rats (n = 80) were randomly allocated into eight groups. Group 1 is untreated rats (control), Group 2 including STZ-induced diabetic rats with 65 mg/kg body weight STZ (STZ-diabetic), Group 3-5: including diabetic rats treated with NSP1, NSP2, and NSP3 at 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily orally by the aid of gastric gavage for 12 consecutive weeks and groups 6-8 include normal rats received NSP (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg body weight once daily orally. The identical volume of normal saline was injected into both control and diabetic rats. After 12 weeks of diabetes induction, the rats were killed. According to our findings, NSP administration to diabetic rats enhances the total body weight and the weight of testes and accessory glands; in addition, NSP significantly reduced nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in testicular tissue improved sperm parameters. Intriguingly, it raises testicular GSH and SOD activity by a significant amount (p < 0.05). As well, Oral administration of NSP to diabetic rats resulted in a decrease in the blood glucose levels, HA1C, induced in the diabetic group, which overcame the diabetic complications NSP caused down-regulation of apoptotic genes with upregulation of BCL-2 mRNA expression (p < 0.05) and prominent up-regulation of steroidogenesis genes expression level in testes in comparison to the diabetic rats which resulted in improving the decreased levels of testosterone hormone, FSH, and LH induced by diabetes. In the same way, our histopathological findings support our biochemical and molecular findings; in conclusion, NSP exerted a protective effect against reproductive dysfunction induced by diabetes not only through its high antioxidant and hypoglycemic action but also through its down-regulation of Apoptotic genes and up-regulation of steroidogenesis regulatory genes expression level in diabetic testes.

Keywords: NSP; apoptosis; diabetic rat; oxidative stress; testicular injury.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Body Weight
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental* / metabolism
  • Male
  • Nanoparticles*
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Semen / metabolism
  • Spirulina* / chemistry
  • Spirulina* / metabolism
  • Testicular Diseases* / etiology
  • Testicular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Testis


  • Antioxidants

Supplementary concepts

  • Arthrospira platensis