Gene-independent therapeutic interventions to maintain and restore light sensitivity in degenerating photoreceptors

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2022 Sep;90:101065. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2022.101065. Epub 2022 May 11.


Neurodegenerative retinal diseases are a prime cause of blindness in industrialized countries. In many cases, there are no therapeutic treatments, although they are essential to improve patients' quality of life. A set of disease-causing genes, which primarily affect photoreceptors, has already been identified and is of major interest for developing gene therapies. Nevertheless, depending on the nature and the state of the disease, gene-independent strategies are needed. Various strategies to halt disease progression or maintain function of the retina are under research. These therapeutic interventions include neuroprotection, direct reprogramming of affected photoreceptors, the application of non-coding RNAs, the generation of artificial photoreceptors by optogenetics and cell replacement strategies. During recent years, major breakthroughs have been made such as the first optogenetic application to a blind patient whose visual function partially recovered by targeting retinal ganglion cells. Also, RPE cell transplantation therapies are under clinical investigation and show great promise to improve visual function in blind patients. These cells are generated from human stem cells. Similar therapies for replacing photoreceptors are extensively tested in pre-clinical models. This marks just the start of promising new cures taking advantage of developments in the areas of genetic engineering, optogenetics, and stem-cell research. In this review, we present the recent therapeutic advances of gene-independent approaches that are currently under clinical evaluation. Our main focus is on photoreceptors as these sensory cells are highly vulnerable to degenerative diseases, and are crucial for light detection.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blindness / therapy
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Humans
  • Photophobia / therapy
  • Quality of Life
  • Retina
  • Retinal Degeneration* / genetics
  • Retinal Degeneration* / therapy