NAD+ Precursors Repair Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes and Prevent Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Apr 28;23(9):4887. doi: 10.3390/ijms23094887.


Axon degeneration in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is associated with impaired NAD+ metabolism. We tested whether the administration of NAD+ precursors, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR), prevents DPN in models of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. NMN was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and STZ-induced diabetic mice by intraperitoneal injection at 50 or 100 mg/kg on alternate days for 2 months. mice The were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 2 months with or without added NR at 150 or 300 mg/kg for 2 months. The administration of NMN to STZ-induced diabetic rats or mice or dietary addition of NR to HFD-fed mice improved sensory function, normalized sciatic and tail nerve conduction velocities, and prevented loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in skin samples from the hind-paw. In adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from HFD-fed mice, there was a decrease in NAD+ levels and mitochondrial maximum reserve capacity. These impairments were normalized in isolated DRG neurons from NR-treated mice. The results indicate that the correction of NAD+ depletion in DRG may be sufficient to prevent DPN but does not significantly affect glucose tolerance, insulin levels, or insulin resistance.

Keywords: NAD+; NEDD4-1; diabetic neuropathy; mitochondria; sirtuins.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental* / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / metabolism
  • Diabetic Neuropathies* / etiology
  • Diabetic Neuropathies* / metabolism
  • Diabetic Neuropathies* / prevention & control
  • Mice
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • NAD / metabolism
  • Nicotinamide Mononucleotide / metabolism
  • Rats


  • NAD
  • Nicotinamide Mononucleotide