Antigens and Antibodies of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome as New Allies in the Pathogenesis of COVID-19 Coagulopathy

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Apr 29;23(9):4946. doi: 10.3390/ijms23094946.


High prevalence of both criteria and extra-criteria antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been reported in COVID-19 patients. However, the differences in aPL prevalence decreased when an age-matched control group was included. The association of aPL with thrombotic events in COVID-19 is very heterogeneous. This could be influenced by the fact that most of the studies carried out were conducted on small populations enriched with elderly patients in which aPL was measured only at a single point and they were performed with non-standardized assays. The few studies that confirmed aPL in a second measurement showed that aPL levels hardly changed, with the exception of the lupus anticoagulant that commonly reduced. COVID-19 coagulopathy is an aPL-independent phenomenon closely associated with the onset of the disease. Thrombosis occurs later in patients with aPL presence, which is likely an additional prothrombotic factor. B2-glycoprotein deficiency (mainly aPL antigen caused both by low production and consumption) is very common during the SARS-CoV2 infection and has been associated with a greater predisposition to COVID-19 complications. This could be a new prothrombotic mechanism that may be caused by the blockage of its physiological functions, the anticoagulant state being the most important.

Keywords: B2GP1 deficiency; COVID-19 coagulopathy; antiphospholipid antibodies; antiphospholipid syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome* / complications
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders* / complications
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Humans
  • RNA, Viral
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Thrombosis*


  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
  • RNA, Viral