Mediterranean Style Dietary Pattern with High Intensity Interval Training in Men with Prostate Cancer Treated with Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Pilot Randomised Control Trial

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 May 7;19(9):5709. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19095709.


Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer has been shown to deteriorate body composition (reduced lean mass and increased body and fat mass) and increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The Mediterranean style dietary pattern (MED-diet) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) may synergistically alleviate these side effects and improve quality of life in men treated with ADT. Methods: Twenty-three men (65.9 ± 7.8 years; body mass index: 29.6 ± 2.7 kg/m2; ADT duration: 33.8 ± 35.6 months) receiving ADT for ≥3 months were randomly assigned (1:1) to 20 weeks of usual care or the MED-diet (10 nutrition consults) with HIIT (4 × 4 min 85−95% heart rate peak, 3× week, starting at 12 weeks). Results: The MED-diet with HIIT significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness (+4.9 mL·kg−1·min, p < 0.001), and body mass (−3.3 kg, p < 0.001) compared to the usual care group at 20 weeks. Clinically meaningful (≥3 points) improvements were seen in quality of life and cancer-related fatigue after 20 weeks. Conclusions: The MED-diet with HIIT increased cardiorespiratory fitness and reduced body weight in men with prostate cancer treated with ADT. Larger trials determining whether the MED-diet with HIIT translates to cardiovascular benefits are warranted.

Keywords: androgen deprivation therapy; high intensity interval training; mediterranean diet; prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Androgens / therapeutic use
  • Body Composition
  • Diet
  • High-Intensity Interval Training*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Quality of Life


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Androgens

Grants and funding

This study was funded by an Advancing Care in Prostate Cancer Research Grant from Sanofi Aventis through the Clinical Oncological Society of Australia.