Dysregulation of the MET tyrosine kinase receptor is a known oncogenic driver, and multiple genetic alterations can lead to a clinically relevant oncogenesis. Currently, a number of drugs targeting MET are under development as potential therapeutics for different cancer indications, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, relatively few of these drugs have shown sufficient clinical activity and obtained regulatory approval. One of the reasons for this could be the lack of effective predictive biomarkers to select the right patient populations for treatment. So far, capmatinib is the only MET-targeted drug approved with a companion diagnostic (CDx) assay, which is indicated for the treatment of metastatic NSCLC in patients having a mutation resulting in MET exon 14 skipping. An alternative predictive biomarker for MET therapy is MET amplification, which has been identified as a resistance mechanism in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Results obtained from different clinical trials seem to indicate that the MET/CEP7 ratio detected by FISH possesses the best predictive properties, likely because this method excludes MET amplification caused by polysomy. In this article, the concept of CDx assays will be discussed, with a focus on the currently FDA-approved MET targeted therapies for the treatment of NSCLC.
Keywords: FISH; MET; MET amplification; MET exon 14 skipping mutation; NGS; NSCLC; amivantamab; capmatinib; crizotinib; tepotinib.