Intestinal Dysbiosis in Patients with Histamine Intolerance

Nutrients. 2022 Apr 23;14(9):1774. doi: 10.3390/nu14091774.


An underlying cause of histamine intolerance is diamine oxidase (DAO) deficiency, which leads to defective homeostasis and a higher systemic absorption of histamine. Impaired DAO activity may have a genetic, pharmacological or pathological origin. A recent proposal also suggests it can arise from an alteration in the gut microbiota, although only one study has explored this hypothesis to date. A greater abundance of histamine-secreting bacteria in the gut could lead to the development of histamine intolerance. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the composition of the intestinal microbiota of patients with histamine intolerance symptoms and compare it with that of healthy individuals. The study was performed by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA genes (V3-V4 region) and analyzing the data using the EzBioCloud Database. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota was observed in the histamine intolerance group who, in comparison with the healthy individuals, had a significantly lower proportion of Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium and Faecablibacterium prausnitzii, which are bacteria related to gut health. They also had a significantly higher abundance of histamine-secreting bacteria, including the genera Staphylococcus and Proteus, several unidentified genera belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae and the species Clostridium perfringens and Enterococcus faecalis. A greater abundance of histaminogenic bacteria would favor the accumulation of high levels of histamine in the gut, its subsequent absorption in plasma and the appearance of adverse effects, even in individuals without DAO deficiency.

Keywords: diamine oxidase (DAO) enzyme; gut microbiota; histamine; histamine intolerance; histamine-secreting bacteria; intestinal dysbiosis.

MeSH terms

  • Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)*
  • Bacteria
  • Dysbiosis / microbiology
  • Faecalibacterium
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome* / genetics
  • Histamine / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics


  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • Histamine
  • Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)