Development of the Hedonic Overeating-Questionnaire (HEDO-Q)

Nutrients. 2022 Apr 29;14(9):1865. doi: 10.3390/nu14091865.


Addictive-like eating is prevalent, but a clear conceptualization and operationalization outside of an addiction framework is lacking. By adopting a biopsychological framework of food reward, this study sought to develop and evaluate a brief self-report questionnaire for the trait assessment of hedonic overeating and dyscontrol. Items in the Hedonic Overeating-Questionnaire (HEDO-Q) were constructed following a rational approach and psychometrically evaluated in a large random sample from the German population (N = 2531). A confirmatory factor analysis supported the unidimensional nature of the six-item HEDO-Q with the three postulated components of wanting, liking, and dyscontrol. Psychometric properties were favorable with good corrected item-total correlations, acceptable item difficulty and homogeneity, and high internal consistency. Population norms were provided. The HEDO-Q revealed strict measurement invariance for sex and partial invariance for age and weight status. Discriminant validity was demonstrated in distinguishing participants with versus without eating disturbances or obesity. Associations with the established measures of eating disorder and general psychopathology supported the convergent and divergent validity of the HEDO-Q. This first evaluation indicates good psychometric properties of the HEDO-Q in the general population. Future validation work is warranted on the HEDO-Q's stability, sensitivity to change, and predictive and construct validity.

Keywords: addictive-like eating; eating disorders; food addiction; hedonic overeating; liking; obesity; psychometric; reliability; validity; wanting.

MeSH terms

  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders*
  • Humans
  • Hyperphagia
  • Psychometrics / methods
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.