The efficient regioselective bromination and iodination of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) carprofen were achieved by using bromine and iodine monochloride in glacial acetic acid. The novel halogenated carprofen derivatives were functionalized at the carboxylic group by esterification. The regioselectivity of the halogenation reaction was evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by X-ray analysis. The compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against planktonic cells and also for their anti-biofilm effect, using Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). The cytotoxic activity of the novel compounds was tested against HeLa cells. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of carprofen derivatives, as well as their toxicity, were established by in silico analyses.
Keywords: 3-bromocarprofen; 3-iodocarprofen; antimicrobial activity; carbazole; carprofen; halogen bonding; halogenation; iodine monochloride.