Long-distance translocation of CLAVATA3/ESR-related 2 peptide and its positive effect on roots sucrose status

Plant Physiol. 2022 Aug 1;189(4):2357-2367. doi: 10.1093/plphys/kiac227.


In vascular plants, roots anchor themselves into the soil and take up water and nutrients to provide them to the shoots. Therefore, continuous growth and development of the roots are important for plant life. To achieve this, photosynthesizing leaves must be able to supply sufficient photoassimilates to the roots. However, the mechanisms by which plants maintain carbon levels in roots remain elusive. Here, we focused on the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CLAVATA3/ESR-related 2 (CLE2) peptide, which was detected in Arabidopsis xylem exudate, and its homologs. CLE2 and CLE3 genes responded to carbon-deficient conditions. Loss- and gain-of-function mutant analyses showed that CLE genes positively affected root sucrose level. Mutations in the CLE genes resulted in a high shoot/root ratio under sucrose-free conditions. Grafting experiments demonstrated the systemic effect of CLE peptide genes. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis for the relationship between roots and leaves in maintenance of the root sucrose levels and growth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis Proteins* / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis*
  • Carbon / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Peptides / metabolism
  • Plant Roots
  • Plant Shoots / metabolism
  • Sucrose / pharmacology


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Peptides
  • Sucrose
  • Carbon