Objective: To present the experience on prenatal diagnosis of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS)/PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly to further determine fetal phenotypes of this syndrome.
Study design: This was a retrospective study of ten pregnancies with fetal MDS/PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly identified by chromosomal microarray (CMA)/exome sequencing (ES). Clinical and laboratory data were collected and reviewed for these cases, including maternal demographics, prenatal sonographic findings, CMA or ES results and pregnancy outcomes.
Results: Two cases were diagnosed in the first trimester because of an increased nuchal translucency. The remaining eight cases were identified at late gestation, including four in the second trimester because of fetal cardiac anomalies or ventriculomegaly, and four in the third trimester because of ventriculomegaly. CMA revealed 17p13.3 deletions in nine cases, and ES detected a de novo PAFAH1B1 missense mutation in one case.
Conclusion: The prenatal presentation of MDS/PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly depended on the gestational age when the diagnosis was made. Mild ventriculomegaly was the most common prenatal sonographic sign identified in cases of MDS/PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly. It is important that fetal MRI and invasive testing with CMA should be considered in fetuses with apparently 'isolated' mild ventriculomegaly.
Keywords: Lissencephaly; Miller-Dieker syndrome; PAFAH1B1 gene; Prenatal diagnosis; Ventriculomegaly.
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