Disparities in 5-year outcomes and imaging surveillance following elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by sex, race, and ethnicity

J Vasc Surg. 2022 Nov;76(5):1205-1215.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.03.886. Epub 2022 May 13.


Objectives: Sex, racial, and ethnic disparities in postoperative outcomes following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair have been described, but differences in long-term outcomes are poorly understood. Our aim was to identify differences in 5-year outcomes and imaging surveillance after elective endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) by sex, race, and ethnicity and to explore potential mechanisms underlying these differences.

Methods: We identified patients undergoing elective EVAR in the Vascular Quality Initiative from 2003 to 2017 with linkage to Medicare claims through 2018 for long-term outcomes. Our primary outcome was 5-year aneurysm rupture. Secondary outcomes were 5-year reintervention and mortality and 2-year loss-to-imaging follow-up (defined as no aortic imaging from 6 to 24 months after EVAR). We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses to evaluate these outcomes by sex/race/ethnicity and constructed multivariable models to explore potential contributing factors.

Results: Among 16,040 patients, 11,764 (73%) were White males, 2891 (18%) were White females, 417 (2.6%) were Black males, 175 (1.1%) were Black females, 141 (0.9%) were Asian males, 34 (0.2%) were Asian females, 277 (1.7%) were Hispanic males, and 60 (0.4%) were Hispanic females. At 5 years, rupture rates were highest in Black females at 6.4% and lowest in white males at 2.3%. Compared with White males, rupture rates were higher in White females (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.0), Black females (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.0-6.0), and Asian females (HR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.3-21). White females also had higher mortality (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.2-1.3) and loss-to-imaging-follow-up (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), whereas Black females had higher mortality (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8) and reintervention (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). Among other groups, Black males had higher reintervention (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8), and both Black and Hispanic males had higher loss-to-imaging-follow-up (Black: HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7; Hispanic: HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8). In adjusted analyses, White, Black, and Asian females remained at significantly higher risk for 5-year rupture after accounting for procedure year, clinical and anatomic characteristics, surgeon and hospital volume, and loss-to-imaging follow-up.

Conclusions: Compared with White male patients, Black females had higher 5-year aneurysm rupture, reintervention, and mortality after elective EVAR, whereas White females had higher rupture, mortality and loss-to-imaging-follow-up. Asian females also had higher rupture, and Black males had higher reintervention and loss-to-imaging-follow-up. These populations may benefit from improved preoperative counseling and clinical outreach after EVAR. A larger-scale investigation of current practice patterns and their impact on sex, racial, and ethnic disparities in late outcomes after EVAR is needed to identify tangible targets for improvement.

Keywords: EVAR; Ethnicity; Late rupture; Race; Sex.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aneurysm, Ruptured* / surgery
  • Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal* / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal* / surgery
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation* / adverse effects
  • Endovascular Procedures*
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medicare
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology