Cardiac-type total anomalous pulmonary venous return is not benign

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2023 Feb;165(2):449-459.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2022.03.036. Epub 2022 Apr 19.


Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between morphological variation and postsurgical pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis (PPVS) in patients with cardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC).

Methods: This single-center, retrospective study included 168 pediatric patients who underwent surgical repair of cardiac TAPVC from 2013 to 2019 (connection to the coronary sinus [CS], n = 136; connection directly to the right atrium [RA], n = 32). Three-dimensional computed tomography modeling and geometric analysis were performed to investigate the morphological features; their relevance to the PPVS was examined.

Results: The connection type had no association with PPVS (CS type: 18% vs right atrial type: 19%; P = .89) but there was a higher incidence of PPVS in patients with a single PV orifice than > 1 orifice (P < .001). Confluence-to-total PV area ratio (hazard ratio, 4.78, 95% CI, 1.86-12.32; P = .001) and length of drainage route (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14-1.31; P < .001) had a 4- and 1-fold increase in the risk for PPVS in the CS type after adjustment for age and preoperative pulmonary venous obstruction. In the right atrial type, those with anomalous PV return to the RA roof were more likely to develop PPVS than to the posterior wall of the RA (P < .001).

Conclusions: The number of inter-junction PV orifice correlated with PPVS development in cardiac TAPVC. The confluence-to-total PV ratio, length of drainage route, and anomalous PV return to the RA roof are important predictors for PPVS. Morphological subcategorization in this clinical setting can potentially assist in surgical decision-making.

Keywords: 3D-computed tomography modeling; cardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection; morphology; postsurgical pulmonary vein stenosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Atrial Fibrillation*
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Pulmonary Veins* / abnormalities
  • Pulmonary Veins* / diagnostic imaging
  • Pulmonary Veins* / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Scimitar Syndrome* / diagnostic imaging
  • Scimitar Syndrome* / surgery