Management of breast complaints and high-risk lesions

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2022 Sep:83:46-59. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2022.03.017. Epub 2022 Apr 4.


Benign breast disease including palpable breast mass, mastalgia, skin changes, and nipple discharge are common gynecologic symptoms. Practitioners should be well versed in the components of clinical breast care. Workup begins with taking a thorough medical and family history to assess risk and performing a clinical breast examination. Breast imaging is often indicated for further evaluation. A structured approach to the evaluation and management of these breast conditions is critical to distinguish benign disease from malignancy. High-risk breast lesions such as atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ are also frequently encountered, and while benign, they do increase the future risk of breast cancer and patients should be offered intensive surveillance and chemoprevention.

Keywords: Benign breast disease; Breast mass; High-risk breast lesion; Mastalgia; Nipple discharge.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast / diagnostic imaging
  • Breast Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Breast Diseases* / therapy
  • Breast Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Breast Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Midazolam
  • Precancerous Conditions* / pathology


  • Midazolam