Percutaneous Tracheostomy: A Bedside Procedure

Cureus. 2022 Apr 12;14(4):e24083. doi: 10.7759/cureus.24083. eCollection 2022 Apr.

Abstract

Percutaneous tracheostomy is a bedside surgical procedure that creates an opening in the anterior tracheal wall. Tracheostomy is performed in patients expected to require mechanical ventilation for longer than seven to 10 days. This bedside percutaneous tracheostomy has been used since the late 1990s. Tracheotomy tubes are of various kinds like cuffed vs. uncuffed, fenestrated vs. unfenestrated, single lumen vs. double lumen, and metal vs. plastic. Its indications are categorized into emergency vs. elective. The most common emergency indication is acute airway obstruction, and the elective indication is prolonged intubation. There is no absolute contraindication, but a physician should consider severe hypoxia requiring high oxygen and coagulopathy. Percutaneous tracheostomy is a new technique requiring different skills. Advantages of percutaneous tracheostomy are as follows - it is performed at the bedside, procedural time is less, the cost is less, does not need operating schedule time. Percutaneous tracheostomy is generally performed by otolaryngologists, general surgeons, interventional pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons, or intensivists.

Keywords: early tracheostomy; outcome of early versus late tracheostomy; percutaneous tracheostomy; tracheostomy complications; tracheostomy procedure.

Publication types

  • Review