Prevalence and Correlates of Violence Experienced by Trans Women

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2022 May;31(5):648-655. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2021.0559.


Objectives: To measure the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner, physical, and sexual violence experienced by trans women. Materials and Methods: A National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) Study of 201 trans women was conducted in San Francisco from July 2019 to February 2020 using respondent-driven sampling. Prevalence ratio tests were used to test differences in the prevalence of violence by demographic characteristics including housing status. Results: Among 201 trans women interviewed, 26.9% were currently homeless. In the past year, 59.7% had been homeless, 34.3% changed housing, 60.7% had a housing situation other than renting or owning. Experiences of violence were common: 36.8% experienced any form of violence, including sexual (16.9%), intimate partner (14.9%), and other physical (25.4%) in the past year. Experiences of violence were significantly associated with multiple measures of housing insecurity. Younger age, being misgendered, and substance use were also associated with experiences of violence. Conclusions: Trans women face dual crises in housing and violence. Affordable, subsidized, and safe housing has the potential to reduce the exposure and vulnerability to violence faced by trans women.

Keywords: homelessness; housing insecurity; intimate partner violence; sexual violence; transgender women; violence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intimate Partner Violence*
  • Prevalence
  • Sex Offenses*
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual Partners
  • Violence