Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocol #36: The Mastitis Spectrum, Revised 2022

Breastfeed Med. 2022 May;17(5):360-376. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2022.29207.kbm.


A central goal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine recognizes that not all lactating individuals identify as women. Using gender-inclusive language, however, is not possible in all languages and all countries and for all readers. The position of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine ( is to interpret clinical protocols within the framework of inclusivity of all breastfeeding, chestfeeding, and human milk-feeding individuals.

Keywords: abscess; breastfeeding; dysbiosis; engorgement; galactocele; lactation; mastitis; phlegmon.

MeSH terms

  • Breast Feeding* / methods
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Lactation
  • Mastitis* / therapy
  • Milk, Human