Differential expansion and outcomes of ascending and descending degenerative thoracic aortic aneurysms

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2022 Apr 9;S0022-5223(22)00390-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2022.03.032. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate expansion of degenerative thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and compare results between ascending and descending TAAs.

Methods: Among patients with diagnosis of degenerative TAA (1995-2015) in Olmsted County, we studied those having at least 2 computed tomography scans of TAA throughout the follow-up. Patients were classified as ascending or descending groups according to the segment where the maximal aortic diameter was measured. Primary end points were expansion rates and factors associated with TAA growth.

Results: We investigated 137 patients, 70 (51.1%) of whom were women; 78 (56.9%) were in the ascending and 59 (43.1%) were in the descending group. Median baseline maximal aortic diameter was 48.5 mm (interquartile range, 47.0-49.9 mm) for ascending and 42.4 mm (interquartile range, 40.0-45.4 mm) for descending group (P < .001). Median expansion rate was higher in the descending than the ascending group (2.0 mm/year [interquartile range, 0.9-3.2 mm/year] vs 0.2 mm/year [IQR, 0.1-0.6 mm/year]; P < .001). Aneurysm in the descending aorta and larger baseline maximal aortic diameter were independently associated with TAA expansion. Advanced age and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but not aneurysm size or location were independently associated with overall mortality (P < .05). Aneurysm in the descending aorta was associated with aortic-related events (P < .05).

Conclusions: Degenerative TAAs under surveillance expand slowly. Descending TAA and larger baseline maximal aortic diameter were independently associated with more rapid TAA expansion, but these factors did not influence all-cause mortality.

Keywords: aortic-related events; expansion; mortality; thoracic aortic aneurysm.