Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetic Profile of Ultra Rapid Lispro Administered Subcutaneously at Different Injection Sites

Clin Ther. 2022 Jun;44(6):836-847. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2022.04.001. Epub 2022 May 13.


Purpose: Ultra rapid lispro (URLi) is a novel insulin lispro formulation developed to more closely match physiological insulin secretion and improve postprandial glucose control. This study compared the pharmacokinetic profile and glucodynamic response of URLi when administered subcutaneously into the abdomen, upper arm, or thigh. An intravenous (IV) bolus administration was included to determine the absolute bioavailability at each injection site.

Methods: In this Phase I, randomized, open-label, 4-period, crossover study, healthy subjects received a single dose of 15 U URLi subcutaneously into the abdomen, upper arm, or thigh, or by intravenous injection. Serum insulin lispro concentrations and glucodynamic response during a 10-hour euglycemic clamp procedure were assessed after URLi administration.

Findings: Total insulin lispro exposure was similar for the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh, and absolute bioavailability was ∼65% at each subcutaneous (SC) injection site. Total and peak insulin action were similar across these SC injection sites. The onset of appearance was <1 minute, and the time to early half-maximal drug concentration occurred at ∼10 minutes across these three SC injection sites. Onset of insulin action occurred at ∼22 minutes, and the early insulin action (for the first hour) was also similar across these SC injection sites. URLi was well tolerated after single SC injections and IV bolus administration.

Implications: The pharmacokinetic and glucodynamic profiles of URLi were similar after a single SC dose into the abdomen, upper arm, or thigh. The rate of insulin lispro absorption and early insulin action were maintained regardless of the SC injection site. The current study supports SC injection of URLi into the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh.

Clinicaltrials: gov identifier: NCT03232983.

Keywords: Euglycemic glucose clamp; Glucodynamics; Injection site; Insulin lispro; Pharmacokinetics; Ultra rapid insulin.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Glucose Clamp Technique
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents*
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Lispro / adverse effects


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Lispro

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03232983