Diabetic ketoacidosis

Dis Mon. 2023 Mar;69(3):101418. doi: 10.1016/j.disamonth.2022.101418. Epub 2022 May 14.


Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a form of a hyperglycemic emergency mainly characterized by the triad of hyperglycemia, ketosis, and anion gap metabolic acidosis. DKA may be the initial presentation in approximately 25-40 % of patients with type 1 diabetes. It may also occur in at least 34% of patients with type 2 diabetes. DKA has economic as well as medical implications. This review aims to explore and discuss diabetic ketoacidosis, its pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management, including nuances in special populations such as pediatrics, obstetrics, and patients with chronic kidney disease.

Keywords: Anion Gap; Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetic Emergency; Diabetic Ketoacidosis; Euglycemia; Hyperglycemia; Insulin; Ketosis; Metabolic acidosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acidosis* / diagnosis
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis* / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis* / therapy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy