Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles: novel approach in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Stem Cell Res Ther. 2022 May 16;13(1):202. doi: 10.1186/s13287-022-02875-3.

Abstract

Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play a crucial role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. These cells affect the process through direct cell-cell contact, as well as releasing various trophic factors and extracellular vehicles (EVs) into the bone marrow microenvironment. MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) are prominent intercellular communication tolls enriched with broad-spectrum bioactive factors such as proteins, cytokines, lipids, miRNAs, and siRNAs. They mimic some effects of MSCs by direct fusion with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) membranes in the bone marrow (BM), thereby affecting HSC fate. MSC-EVs are attractive scope in cell-free therapy because of their unique capacity to repair BM tissue and regulate proliferation and differentiation of HSCs. These vesicles modulate the immune system responses and inhibit graft-versus-host disease following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Recent studies have demonstrated that MSC-EVs play an influential role in the BM niches because of their unprecedented capacity to regulate HSC fate. Therefore, the existing paper intends to speculate upon the preconditioned MSC-EVs as a novel approach in HSCT.

Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Hematopoietic stem cells; Mesenchymal stem cells.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Extracellular Vesicles* / metabolism
  • Graft vs Host Disease* / metabolism
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells* / metabolism