Viral hepatitis: Past, present, and future

World J Gastroenterol. 2022 Apr 14;28(14):1405-1429. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i14.1405.


Each hepatitis virus-Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G-poses a distinct scenario to the patient and clinician alike. Since the discovery of each virus, extensive knowledge regarding epidemiology, virologic properties, and the natural clinical and immunologic history of acute and chronic infections has been generated. Basic discoveries about host immunologic responses to acute and chronic viral infections, combined with virologic data, has led to vaccines to prevent Hepatitis A, B, and E and highly efficacious antivirals for Hepatitis B and C. These therapeutic breakthroughs are transforming the fields of hepatology, transplant medicine in general, and public and global health. Most notably, there is even an ambitious global effort to eliminate chronic viral hepatitis within the next decade. While attainable, there are many barriers to this goal that are being actively investigated in basic and clinical labs on the local, national, and international scales. Herein, we discuss pertinent clinical information and recent organizational guidelines for each of the individual hepatitis viruses while also synthesizing this information with the latest research to focus on exciting future directions for each virus.

Keywords: Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Hepatitis D; Hepatitis E; Hepatitis G; Viral Hepatitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Hepatitis A*
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis B* / drug therapy
  • Hepatitis, Viral, Human* / epidemiology
  • Hepatitis, Viral, Human* / prevention & control
  • Humans


  • Antiviral Agents