Development and validation of the psychometric properties of the perceived barriers of mammography scale

Health Care Women Int. 2022 May 19;1-21. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2021.1971671. Online ahead of print.


We aimed to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Perceived Barriers of Mammography Scale (PBMS-23). Based on a mixed method design researchers generated item pool through qualitative data and literature review and next, 500 women ages 40 to 69 years completed the questionnaire. Based on exploratory and confirmatory Factor Analysis, 23 items, researchers revealed eight domains of fate and destiny, breast conflict, defense avoidance, inconveniences/difficulties of mammography screening, contrasting/competing priorities, fear, distrust of mammography, and lack of knowledge with appropriate fitness for the data. PBMS-23 is valid and reliable instrument for assessing perceived barriers of mammography.