High titer antibodies primarily of the IgG class were produced against galactocerebroside (GalC) by including keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and supplemental M. tuberculosis in the adjuvant mixture used for immunization of rabbits. Antibody titers were determined by an ELISA in which microtiter wells were coated with liposomes containing lecithin, cholesterol and GalC. The antibodies showed reactivity with GalC and psychosine, but not glucocerebroside, sulfatide, mixed gangliosides or asialo GM1. Specificity was further demonstrated by absorption of antibodies with GalC. Binding was inhibited by galactose, but only at high concentrations. Further, the antibodies did not bind to any brain proteins on immunoblots, indicating lack of reactivity with glycoproteins which might contain a terminal galactose. Antibodies to GalC are directed against different determinants than those reacting with peanut agglutinin since the lectin will not react with GalC, and the antibodies will not react with asialo GM1. The antibodies raised to GalC by this method show specific staining for oligodendroglia in culture. Peanut agglutinin binds intensely to process-bearing GalC+ oligodendroglia, but very poorly to the membrane sheets elaborated by oligodendroglia after longer times in culture. Other process-bearing GalC-, GFAP- cells were also stained with peanut agglutinin; these cells may represent glial precursors.