Purpose: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, with heterogeneous clinical presentation. Our goal was to analyze CD8 T cell homeostasis in patients with infection only CVID, compared to those additionally affected by dysregulatory and autoimmune phenomena.
Methods: We used flow and mass cytometry evaluation of peripheral blood of 40 patients with CVID and 17 healthy donors.
Results: CD8 T cells are skewed in patients with CVID, with loss of naïve and increase of effector memory stages, expansion of cell clusters with high functional exhaustion scores, and a highly activated population of cells with immunoregulatory features, producing IL-10. These findings correlate to clinically widely used B cell-based EURO classification. Features of exhaustion, including loss of CD127 and CD28, and expression of TIGIT and PD-1 in CD8 T cells are strongly associated with interstitial lung disease and autoimmune cytopenias, whereas CD8 T cell activation with elevated HLA-DR and CD38 expression predict non-infectious diarrhea.
Conclusion: We demonstrate features of advanced differentiation, exhaustion, activation, and immunoregulatory capabilities within CD8 T cells of CVID patients. Assessment of CD8 T cell phenotype may allow risk assessment of CVID patients and provide new insights into CVID pathogenesis, including a better understanding of mechanisms underlying T cell exhaustion and regulation.
Keywords: Activation; CVID; Differentiation; Exhaustion; Immunodeficiency; T cells.
© 2022. The Author(s).