Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system chronic neuroinflammatory disease followed by neurodegeneration. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid testing and magnetic resonance imagining. There is still a lack of a diagnostic blood-based biomarker for MS. Due to the cost and difficulty of diagnosis, new and more easily accessible methods are being sought. New biomarkers should also allow for early diagnosis. Additionally, the treatment of MS should lead to the personalization of the therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as well as their target genes participate in pathophysiology processes in MS. Although the detailed mechanism of action of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, including miRNAs and lncRNAs) on neuroinflammation in MS has not been fully explained, several studies were conducted aiming to analyse their impact in MS. In this article, we review up-to-date knowledge on the latest research concerning the ncRNAs in MS and evaluate their role in neuroinflammation. We also point out the most promising ncRNAs which may be promising in MS as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.
Keywords: Long intergenic non-coding RNAs; Novel biomarker; lincRNA; lncRNA; miRNA; microRNA.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.