This paper presents a robust model-based technique to detect multiple faults in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs), namely inter-turn short circuit (ITSC) and encoder faults. The proposed model is based on a structural analysis, which uses the dynamic mathematical model of a PMSM in an abc frame to evaluate the system's structural model in matrix form. The just-determined and over-determined parts of the system are separated by a Dulmage-Mendelsohn decomposition tool. Subsequently, the analytical redundant relations obtained using the over-determined part of the system are used to form smaller redundant testable sub-models based on the number of defined fault terms. Furthermore, four structured residuals are designed based on the acquired redundant sub-models to detect measurement faults in the encoder and ITSC faults, which are applied in different levels of each phase winding. The effectiveness of the proposed detection method is validated by an in-house test setup of an inverter-fed PMSM, where ITSC and encoder faults are applied to the system in different time intervals using controllable relays. Finally, a statistical detector, namely a generalized likelihood ratio test algorithm, is implemented in the decision-making diagnostic system resulting in the ability to detect ITSC faults as small as one single short-circuited turn out of 102, i.e., when less than 1% of the PMSM phase winding is short-circuited.
Keywords: PM synchronous motor; fault diagnosis; generalized likelihood ratio test; inter-turn short circuit; sensor fault; structural analysis.